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نوع مطلب :
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بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِیمِ ﴿۱﴾
In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Most Merciful (۱)
الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِینَ ﴿۲﴾
Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, (۲)
الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِیمِ ﴿۳﴾
the Merciful, the Most Merciful, (۳)
مَالِكِ یَوْمِ الدِّینِ ﴿۴﴾
Owner of the Day of Recompense. (۴)
إِیَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِیَّاكَ نَسْتَعِینُ ﴿۵﴾
You (alone) we worship; and You (alone) we rely for help. (۵)
اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِیمَ ﴿۶﴾
Guide us to the Straight Path, (۶)
صِرَاطَ الَّذِینَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَیْهِمْ غَیْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَیْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّینَ ﴿۷﴾
the Path of those upon whom You have favored, not those upon whom is the anger, nor the astray. (Amen please answer) (۷)
نوع مطلب :
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Spirit of God. The most comprehensive of these are found in John 14-
16. Looking through these chapters the following verses stand out.
John 14:26. "But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom
the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and
bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto
John 15:26. "But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send
unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth
from the Father, he shall testify of me."
John 16:7-14. "Nevertheless I tell you the truth; it is expedient for
you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come
unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you. And when he is
come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of
judgment: Of sin, because they believe not on me; Of righteousness,
because I go to my Father, and ye see me no more; Of judgment,
because the prince of this world is judged. I have yet many things to
say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. Howbeit when he, the
Spirit of truth is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not
speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and
he will shew you things to come. He shall glorify me: for he shall
receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you."
Now the Spirit of God in the Bible narratives works not in a void
but through human beings. This promise refers to a prophet who has
ears and a mouth (John 16:13). What do we learn from this prophecy
of Jesus about the prophet to follow him?
First of all, there is a three-part message. He will reprove the
world of unbelief in Jesus Christ. He will bring a message of
righteousness, that is a renewed regard for obedience to the
commandments. He will emphasize the importance of the Day of
Secondly, Jesus remarks that there are many things to be said, but
he cannot teach his hearers all of these things because they are not yet
ready for them. The inference is that the prophet to come will teach
some new points of doctrine and practice that the people of Jesus's
time were not ready to receive. These things probably have to do with
the change of the direction of prayer and place of pilgrimage from
Jerusalem to another place, and other details that could not be accepted
as long as the temple existed.
Thirdly, the coming prophet would guide into all truth. That is,
when his message is given, there will never be any need for another
message, since with his revelation all truth which God intended to
reveal will have been revealed.
Fourthly, he will not speak using his own words. He will be
verbally inspired. He will actually hear the message of God in spoken
form from the angel and will recite verbally what he hears. He will
thus be different from some prophets who received the inspired
message and wrote it in their own words.
Fifthly, he will reveal future events.
Sixthly, he will preach the things that Jesus himself taught.
It would appear that we have a good deal of information about the
prophet to follow Jesus, probably enough to identify him with
certainty. Nevertheless, on another occasion Jesus gave still more
information. In Matthew 7:15-20 Jesus points out that "by their fruits
ye shall know them." This is generally thought to refer to actions, bad
fruits being evil actions and good fruits good acts. Psalm 1:3 describes
this prophet "who brings forth fruit in his season." The book of
Revelation suggests that the tree has twelve different fruits (Revelation
22:2). It is very possible that Jesus is referring to the fact that the
prophet to come should have twelve pure descendants or followers
who would have authority and act as the final divine guides in their
age. We can be sure of this only if we find a prominent contestant for
the position of prophethood who actually had twelve such descendants
Contemplation of the seven criteria shows immediately that most
of them are subject to interpretation. It would be easy, for example, to
construe the three-pronged message to fit almost any claimant to
prophetship. The one criterion which is hard and fast is the prophecy
on the means of revelation. We must look for a prophet who heard a
voice and dictated the message word for word.
Joseph Smith, for example, claimed to receive the message on
golden plates from which he translated in writing. Although he might
fit all of the other criteria, he misses on the most objective one.
Ellen White, to take another prominent example, claimed to hear
the voice, but she never claimed verbal inspiration nor dictated the
message of the angel in a book. She wrote her books in words of her
own choice. Besides, she, unlike Joseph Smith, was not followed by a
succession of twelve. Nor did she herself in fact claim to be the
All of the criteria can be easily fitted to the case of Muhammad.
But the one objective criterion, the means of revelation, seems so
overwhelmingly appropriate that it is difficult to dismiss it. The story
is that Muhammad was praying and meditating in a cave when the
angel Gabriel suddenly appeared to him and he heard the words: "In
the name of God the most gracious, ever merciful! Recite in the name
of thy Lord who creates perfectly. He creates man from a clot. Recite!
And thy Lord is the most honorable!" Qur'an 96:1-3.
The subject of Biblical prophecy as related to Muhammad is
widely dealt with by Ahmed Deedat, Abdu '1-Ahad Dawud, and many
others. I have said little here in addition to such studies and left out
much that has been said. I would only add something to Ahmed
Deedat's excellent handling of Deuteronomy 18:18 "I will raise up a
prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my
words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall
command him." Christians often claim that this refers to Jesus. But the
parallel between Moses and Jesus seems inconsistent, since Christians
claim Jesus to be God and deny such status to Moses. If Jesus is God,
he is definitely not like Moses and the passage cannot apply to him. If
he is not God, then the Christian doctrine falls.
The history of Muhammad is tragic. After the death of
Muhammad many Muslims followed unjust and irreligious caliphs.
The later caliphs changed the religion to suit themselves. This is
recognized by both orientalists and Muslims alike. The family of the
prophet's daughter was hounded, persecuted, poisoned and murdered
by the so-called Muslim State. It is only a miracle that some
knowledge of the eleven descendants of the daughter of Muhammad
has come down to us. These pure, humble, persecuted people might
well be compared to the twelve fruits of the good tree Jesus mentions
in Matthew seven.
Since we are examining the Bible as the traditional, historical text
of Christianity I have chosen to use the King James Version in English
and the Hebrew Massoretic text and received text of the Greek New
Testament from which it was translated. The editions of the latter I
have followed are The New Testament, The Greek Text Underlying
the English Authorised Version of 1611, Trinitarian Bible Society,
London, and Biblia Hebraica, Johanne Leusden, Everardo Van Der
Hooght, Judah D'Allemand, London 1822. I have also referred to the
Byzantine Greek text in the edition of
TA BIBAIA, H0EIA rPA®H THE IIAAAIAZ TE KA1 KAINHS AI
A&HKHZ, Moscow, 1841.
The method will be to examine the whole Bible in terms of the
various Islamic beliefs and practices. Critical method will be relevant
to the extent necessary to identify Biblical beliefs and practices in
context which show similarity or equivalence to Islamic ones. The
method is rigorous and scientific, but approaches problems vastly
different from those usually examined by scholars. It is not the goal to
establish the original or source text. That would defeat the purpose.
What is of interest is to what extent the Bible as it has come down to
us through Christian tradition reflects not Christian but Islamic
aspects. Such a study would be fortuitous except for the fact that the
texts of Christianity and Islam share a geographical and to a great
extent cultural heritage.
The examination of the Biblical text will entail first of all the
establishment of linguistic equivalents for Islamic features. The
second, and supporting method will be to establish conceptual
equivalents. The second method obviously lacks the objectivity of the
first, but will certainly prove fruitful, as it allows us to bring to bear on
each subject texts which may be relevant, but which might be
overlooked from a mere linguistic approach. The linguistic approach is
used first and primarily in order to preserve objectivity.
Since Islamic approaches to written Scripture makes a clear
distinction between writings purporting to quote God directly (the
Qur'an), and writings purporting to quote human beings (ahadith or
traditions), I have indicated those distinctions in the use of Bible texts.
Texts purporting to be quotations of the very words of God are marked
with a star. Strangely that basic distinction is largely overlooked by
Jewish and Christian readers.
Judaism, Christianity share many beliefs and practices, some of
which are considered fundamental to Islam. Among such fundamental
beliefs in common are the belief in Scripture-bearing prophets, angels,
and sacred Scriptures as such. The Day of Judgment is a belief
common to all three traditions as well. These fundamentals are
copiously represented in the Bible, and they are the focus of a brief
exposition in chapter one. Other aspects are common to all three
traditions, but have features which distinguish them within the
traditions. It will be of interest to focus on such distinguishing features
in order to establish what precisely is described by the Biblical texts.
A study of this kind, because of its pioneering character as well as
the limits of time and space, can only be partial. I cannot examine all
of the texts bearing on a subject in detail, or even mention all of them
for most subjects. Many questions will remain for further research, but
I have tried to touch on the most important ones. I hope that the reader
will thoughtfully consider whether or not the Bible supports the basic
teachings of Islam.
The best way of establishing Islamic beliefs and practices is to
refer to authoritative Islamic texts. I have taken as basic sources
Islamic Teachings in Brief by Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn
Tabataba'i, Ansariya Publications, Qum, Islamic Republic of Iran,
translated by Muzhgan Jalali; and the introductory notes of The Holy
Qur'an, S. V. Mir Ahmed Ali, Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an, New York,
The specific issues I have identified as both representing Islam and
showing distinctively Islamic features in contrast to other traditions are
the following: the concepts of God and divine guidance, purity, prayer,
fasting, pilgrimage, sacrifice, polygamy and concubinage. All of these
are included in Ali's Islamic fundamentals with the exception of
polygamy and concubinage (Ali 1988:69a, 104a). He deals with
polygamy and concubinage in brief notes on important topics (Ali
1988:139a, 140a). They are all dealt with in detail in Tabataba'i
نوع مطلب : Islam in the Bible،
برچسب ها :
لینک های مرتبط :
house and steal our silver and gold while we are gone." Matthew 6:19-
21. The next excuse he meets is, "What are we going to eat and drink
on the way? And how am I going to make up the lost time from work?
I have to support my family. I have to buy new clothes for the children
before school starts and I don't see how we are going to make ends
meet. We can't go on pilgrimage this year." Matthew 6:22-34.
In sum, Matthew six gives in order four of the traditional Islamic
pillars of practice as the very core of Jesus's message. Embedded as
they are in the very structure of the passage, they suggest that other
parts of the Bible might well be hiding features that may become clear
only as we view them from an Islamic perspective.
Islamic belief and practice are not based on the Bible. They are
based on the Qur'an and on the sunna or example of the Prophet. The
confrontation between Christian and Muslim is often largely a
confrontation between books. For that reason Muslims assume that the
Bible teaches what Christians believe and practice. They very often
use the Bible to show that it does not teach Islam and shows evidence
of not being valid. Whether or not the Bible has been corrupted as
Muslim commentators and Christian scholars maintain is beside the
point for the present study. There is no reason why the Bible could not
be approached from the opposite angle. The conflict of books is
generally a deadlock. A new approach might raise fresh issues among
the traditions, and help us to see them in a new light. Does the Bible as
we now have it and as it has been used through centuries of Christian
tradition support Islamic beliefs and practices?
Some Muslims have appealed to the Christian Scriptures on behalf
of their faith to some extent. Most such appeals surround the figure of
the final prophet. Since much has been written about this, I have not
given it a special chapter here. I shall merely summarize some of the
more important arguments that Muslims have traditionally made.
The problem posed here is whether or not the Bible is complete
and the faith finished, or whether it leaves the door open for prophets
to come. The Bible on many occasions contends that people who
rejected prophets and divinely appointed leaders in their own times,
pretending to rely on earlier ones, no matter how valid these might
have been, were lost. Are there any Biblical reasons for rejecting the
idea of additions to the canon? Revelation 22:18 appears to be a
serious obstacle to addition. "If any man shall add unto these things,
God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book." The
answer to this is obvious. These words refer to the whole book that
was written in the scroll at hand, that is, the book of Revelation. They
do not refer to the addition of more books to the collection of the
canon. The book of Revelation itself was accepted in the canon only
centuries after it was written. No other Biblical evidence is to be found
against more prophets.
On the contrary much warning is given against false prophets and
how to recognize them. "For there shall arise false Christs, and false
prophets, and shall shew great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it
were possible, they shall deceive the very elect." Matthew 24:24. If the
prophetic revelation were closed, it would only remain to say that
anyone claiming to be a prophet is false. The implication is that at least
one more prophet is forthcoming.
Those who came to question John the Baptist reveal that the
people of the time knew that another prophet was coming and were
expecting him. John 1:19-25. "And this is the record of John, when the
Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, Who art
thou? And he confessed, and denied not; but confessed, I am not the
Christ. And they asked him, What then? Art thou Elias? And he saith, I
am not. Art thou that prophet? And he answered, No. Then said they
unto him, Who art thou? that we may give an answer to them that sent
us. What sayest thou of thyself? He said, I am the voice of one crying
in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as said the
prophet Esaias. And they which were sent were of the Pharisees. And
they asked him, and said unto him, Why baptizest thou then, if thou be
not that Christ, nor Elias, neither that prophet?"
From this it appears clearly that three figures were expected: the
promised Messiah or Christ, Elias or Elijah, and "that prophet."
Although John in his modesty denied it, Jesus later stated that John
was the expected Elias (Matthew 11:14). Jesus himself was the
expected Messiah or Christ. Who then is the prophet to come? It is a
fact that he does not appear in the Bible. So we must look for him after
the time of Jesus.
We know that prophets according to the Bible speak by the
inspiration of the Spirit of God. So we can expect to find information
if there is any in the promises relating to the future working of the
نوع مطلب : Islam in the Bible،
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!In the Name of God Most Gracious, Ever Merciful
Islam in the Bible
Not only Judaism in its several varieties, but hundreds of different
sects of Christianity all maintain that their beliefs and practices are
based on the Bible. If so many different religions can be justified by
?the Bible, why not Islam
Most of Christianity recognizes the authority of the Bible,
containing the Hebrew and Greek writings. There is some discussion
of what writings to include and to what degree they are authoritative,
but in principle Christians recognize the Bible. All forms of Judaism
recognize the Torah and the other writings of the Tanach, which makes
up the Old Testament of the Christian. Islam appeals primarily to the
Holy Qur'an, but in principle accepts the Bible. In practice, Muslims
reject the Bible on the assumption that it is corrupted from the original
in order to make it accommodate to Christian teaching.
The problem arises when we compare the beliefs and practices of
any particular religious group with the book it appeals to. Inevitably
there is much selectivity and interpretation, but beyond this remains
the bare fact that the book is never the sole source of belief and
practice. Where would the Christian year of festivals, the liturgy and a
multitude of beliefs and practices be if all had to be founded on the
Bible? Many of them would sadly fall by the wayside.
The decollage between books and actual belief and practice first
struck me a few years ago when I noticed how the books relate to the
day of worship. The Hebrew Scriptures obviously maintain the
observance of the Sabbath or seventh day of the week. Jewish tradition
quite consistently puts this in practice. The observance of Sunday is
characteristic of Christianity. But there is very little justification for
this in the Greek Scriptures, the so-called New Testament. On the
contrary, the Sabbath is mentioned very often, sometimes quite
favorably. I looked in the Qur'an to see how it dealt with the issue, and
found that the Sabbath is maintained on a half-dozen occasions in the
Qur'an as well. Friday prayer is also well established in the Qur'an,
unlike Sunday in the New Testament, which can only be defended by
doing violence to the text. But there is no Qur'anic justification for the
observance of Friday as a special day from Thursday evening, as some
Muslims seem to do. We thus find the Sabbath to be a feature common
to all of the sacred books. By contrast, the traditions vary on how they
relate to the Sabbath.
By way of experiment I began to think how the Scriptures align
themselves with the beliefs and practices of the various traditions.
There might well be more features supporting Judaism in the Qur'an
than mere reference to Saturday observance, and on the other hand,
more features supporting Islam in the Bible than special recognition of
Friday. Since Muslims generally do not know the Bible well, there is
every reason to believe that they might be mistaken when they think
the Bible supports Christianity. In sum, one question seems never to
have been answered. How do Islamic belief and practice compare to
the texts of Judaism and Christianity, that is, to the Bible?
I first came to the conclusion that the Bible might reflect Islamic
features in unexpected ways through a reading of the Sermon on the
Mount in Matthew 5-7. A closer look at this text will reveal how the
Bible can express Islamic values even on a structural level. This
passage contains the texts which the greatest numbers of Christians
know by heart. Some Christian sects, notably those who have
descended from the Anabaptists, seem to base the core of their
doctrine on this passage alone. The Sermon on the Mount is beloved
by Christian and non-Christian alike. The non-religious person in
Christian societies often appeals to its words. It is said that Gandhi
based his practice of non-violent resistance on it.
Since this is indisputably one of the most important texts of
Christianity, we can only wonder how well it supports the basic beliefs
of Christianity. Some of the most important beliefs of Christianity are
these three. Christians believe that God is one God eternally existing in
three persons, God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit.
Christians believe that the man Jesus is also in one and the same
person at one and the same time completely and wholly God
Almighty, one and equal with the Father. Finally, Christians believe
that salvation and correspondingly forgiveness of sins depend on the
atoning sacrifice for sin made by Jesus in his death on the cross. By
comparison, the well-known five pillars of Islamic practice are
testifying that there is no god but God, prayer, alms, fasting, and
The whole Sermon on the Mount implies time and again that there
is only one being who is God, the one Jesus calls "Our Father."
Because we live in a world of permissive child-rearing, we fail to
notice immediately that the basic relationship referred to is the
relationship of submission and obedience. The God of the Sermon on
the Mount is one to whom people owe submission and obedience. No
trinity is mentioned at all. In no place in Matthew five to seven does
Jesus even remotely suggest that he himself is God Almighty.
From the Christian point of view the vicarious sacrifice of Jesus
on the cross for forgiveness of sin is the heart of the Gospel. Jesus
does suggest a condition for forgiveness of sin, but that condition is
not his vicarious death on the cross. He says that we shall be forgiven
as we forgive (Matthew 6:15), and judged as we judge others
Christians have rightly divided the Sermon on the Mount into
three chapters, for it does in fact present three subjects. Belief in the
law and the prophets is the subject of chapter five. Certainty of the
Day of Judgment is the subject of chapter seven. Chapter six presents
the faith of Jesus in practice.
Let us first take a look at chapter five. The subject here is to
maintain the authority of the law and the prophets. When Jesus spoke
to the crowd, he was faced with people who were suspicious of one
thing, whether or not he upheld the law. The people had already seen
miracles. They were ready to believe in Jesus provided that he could
produce evidence that he was loyal to the law, and that he upheld the
Torah, the books of Moses. This was crucial. Without it he would not
So Jesus set about the task. First of all he gained the people's
confidence by giving a series of blessings. Luke 6:24-26 adds curses to
these. The familiar covenant of blessings and curses, so well known
from the book of Deuteronomy immediately flooded into his hearers'
minds. They were on familiar ground. They felt at ease.
Then Jesus came to the point. "Think not that I am come to
destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.
For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one
tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. Whosoever
therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach
men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but
whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in
the kingdom of heaven." Matthew 5:17-19. There it is. Jesus has had
his say. Stronger language could not have been invented. In the rest of
the chapter he gives illustrations, first from the ten commandments and
then from other parts of the books of Moses. He illustrates how he
supports the law.
Modern interpreters might maintain that Jesus gave a new law,
because he contrasted what he said with what was said earlier by
saying, "But I say unto you,..." But when Jesus says that anger is
murder, surely no one with good sense will say that he means you can
kill people after all as long as you are not angry with them. When he
says to look in lust is the same as adultery, only an insane person
would say he means that it is all right to go to bed with someone
illicitly as long as you do not look at them with lust first. Jesus does
not abrogate the law when he points out its spirituality. He does not
give permission to disobey the law by striking out against hypocrisy.
In the same way Jesus supports the law of divorce and oaths.
Untold misery has come from Christians who think Jesus abrogated
the law of divorce by saying "Whosoever shall put away his wife
causeth her to commit adultery." In all of his commentaries Jesus is
attacking hypocrisy, which is keeping the law in letter, but having
altogether different intentions. In this case Jesus is attacking the
hypocritical practice in the Near East of marrying with the intention of
immediate divorce in order to give a legal face to prostitution. In a
society where prostitution is not even given that legal basis, the true
teaching here is likely to escape notice. Jesus affirms the law of
Moses. He can do nothing else without discrediting himself. He
accepts the legislation on divorce when it is used as originally
When it comes to oaths, Christian interpreters have done little
better. Jesus again attacks hypocrisy. In Matthew 23:16-23 Jesus tells
precisely what kind of oath he is talking about. He is attacking the
practice of clothing a lie with an oath that is formally defective. A
seller in the marketplace might swear by the temple. When an irate
buyer returned with a complaint, he would then say, "Oh, I swore by
the temple, so it is not binding. If I had sworn by the gold of the
temple, it would have been binding." Jesus attacks this hypocrisy, and
in so doing upholds the law and acquires the confidence of his
Let us take a quick look at Matthew seven. The chapter shouts the
subject from the very beginning. "Judge not, that ye be not judged. For
with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged." Matthew 7:1,2.
Jesus gives many valuable hints on how to prepare for the judgment to
come. He says to concentrate on yourself rather than on others. Most
of us go through life spending a great deal of time talking and thinking
about other people's faults and very little time correcting our own.
Jesus is practical and knows what we are like. He says to ask God for
help. No one can stand in the judgment without the infinite grace of
God. He says that we will be judged according to the law and the
prophets and sums up the law and the prophets very neatly. "Do as you
would be done by." Matthew 7:12. He warns us not to follow the
crowd. Conformity takes us to hell (verses 13,14). He warns us not to
be taken in by false prophets and gives a hint on how to know them.
He says that pretending to be religious will get you nowhere, but only
those who do God's will can be saved in the judgment (verses 21-23).
All in all, the chapter is about the Day of Judgment and how to prepare
After establishing his authority on the law and the prophets, and
before warning about the Day of Judgment, Jesus gives us a beautiful
summary of his own teaching. Matthew six is above all the very
teaching of Jesus Christ as presented in the Christian Scriptures.
Anyone who truly desires to follow the faith of Jesus Christ can find
the pillars of practical faith right here in this chapter. They are few and
Most Christian creeds can be reduced to a few simple pillars,
which are: belief in the Trinity, faith in the atoning sacrifice of Christ
for the forgiveness of sin, the Church as the channel of grace, and the
eternal reward. Judaism can be summed up as belief in one God, the
Torah, and the covenant of God with the people of Israel. Islam is
summed up as confession of one God, daily prayer in prostration, alms
in charity, fasting, and pilgrimage. So how does Jesus sum up his faith
according to the Christian Scriptures?
When we turn to Matthew six, the first subject is covered in verses
one to four. We may be surprised to find that the first pillar of practice
mentioned is giving alms in charity. Jesus warns us, aptly enough, to
avoid hypocrisy in the giving of alms.
When we read on, the next pillar of practice appears in verses 5-
15. That second pillar is prayer. Jesus does not tell us here how to
pray. All of his listeners already knew this. They knew it from the law
and the prophets. They knew that Daniel prostrated himself in prayer
toward the house of God morning, afternoon and evening (Daniel
6:10). They knew from the Psalms of David, called The Prayers in
Hebrew, that prayer should be done at set times in the day and should
be preceded by ablutions. They knew from the same Psalms that
prayer should be done standing, bowing, and prostrating. They knew
that prayer, according to the Psalms, included raising the hands and
crying time and again "Yigdal Adonai" or in English "the Lord be
magnified" or in Arabic "Allaho akbar."
What Jesus did tell the people was to avoid hypocrisy in prayer, to
pray briefly and simply, and then he gave them a list of appropriate
subjects for prayer. The so-called Lord's prayer is that list. It is not a
model prayer to be repeated word for word, or the version of it given
in Luke would have been identical. So the second pillar of practice
mentioned in Matthew six is prayer in brevity, simplicity, and lack of
The third pillar in the practice of the faith of Jesus is found in
Matthew 6:16-18. Here he mentions fasting, again with the warning
that we must avoid hypocrisy. He does not tell us how to fast. But we
already know how to fast, just as his listeners did. Is it the Christian
fast of avoiding certain foods? No. It is a fast of total abstention from
food and drink, just as Moses did on the mount (Exodus 34:28). That
tradition came unbroken all the way down to Jesus who practiced it
himself according to Matthew 4:1,2.
So far Jesus has attacked hypocrisy in the practice of faith. Now
he comes to an entirely different problem. In Matthew 6:16-34 we are
not faced with hypocrisy, which is the plague of almsgiving in charity,
prayer, and fasting. We are faced with fear and excuses. Those are the
plagues of pilgrimage.
Jesus goes straight to the problem of how to convince people to go
on pilgrimage to the house of God as they should by the example of
the Christian Scriptures and as they were commanded to do in the law
of Moses. The first excuse he meets is, "Somebody might break in our
نوع مطلب : Islam in the Bible،
برچسب ها : bible، Islam in the Bible، Islam،
لینک های مرتبط :
در این سایت آرشیو فیلم های آشپزی ، پزشکی ، هنری مربوط به شبکه جام جم و شبکه 5 تهران را قرار داده ام.
مدیر وبلاگ : H. B